Costa Rican Music
Last Updated: Apr 03, 2012
Music is an integral part of most Latin American cultures and Costa Rica is no exception. Many of Costa Rica's musical traditions date back to colonial times, when the Spanish brought European rhythms to the country's shores. Over time, Spanish beats harmonized with indigenous tempos to create folkloric music unique to Costa Rica.
Today, in addition to the nation's proprietary genres, Costa Ricans enjoy Latin, American and British contemporary rock. However, when it comes to dancing, most prefer the traditional Latin rhythms of salsa, merengue, cumbia, and bolero. On the weekends, discos and dance halls are packed, as the typically conservative locals let loose and flirt wildly while dancing the night away. From classical to reggaeton, music is everywhere – in the streets, homes, restaurants, bars, discos and theaters.
Costa Rican folk music is defined as traditional rhythms created by everyday citizens, for the enjoyment of the masses. By definition, folk music is imitated and evolves over the years. In Costa Rica, the four powerhouses for folk music are Guanacaste, the Central Valley, Limon, and San Isidro del General; these styles are known respectively as musica guanacasteca, musica aldeana, musica limonense, and musica generalena. Popular folk music from other areas of the country is considered to copy these four principal styles.
The rhythms of Guanacaste are an integral part of the nation's musical heritage. Folkloric music from Guanacaste features Spanish, Nicaraguan, Cuban, Panamanian and Colombian influences. It employs use of the marimba, a type of large wooden xylophone, and encompasses many styles – puntos, tambitos, callejeras, and parranderas are among the most popular. Guanacaste's music is inseparably interwoven with the region's dances, which incorporate old-world flourishes and traditional costume; popular Guancastecan dances include the Punto Guanacasteco and Los Amores de Laco.
The Central Valley's folk music has no known composers, but these beautiful, Spanish-influenced melodies are known as "serenatas campesinas," or peasant serenades. Batambas are a common type of Central Valley folk music that feature guitarists and marimba players, and a harmonic and irresistible beat. The Central Valley's traditional songs can be easily identified, since each stanza continues for several counts longer than the music. Two popular examples of "musica aldeana" are "Despierta nina" (Wake up, child) and "No puede haber amor como el primero" (There can be no love like the first).
There are four basic branches of Caribbean folkloric music, which is rooted in the rhythms of Spain, the Central Valley, and the Caribbean islands. The first type features comparsas, or lively bands that play during parades and celebrations. The second form, known as sinkit, is a famed Costa Rican musical genre that has base drums, snare drums, and clarinets. The third branch of Limon's musical heritage is known as "son," and is rooted in the syncopated rhythms of Spain, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama and the Dominican Republic. Finally, "Afrotica," also known as Afro-Costa Rican or Afro-Limonese music, is the result of blending traditional Christian music with the so-called profane sounds of plebeian Costa Rica.
San Isidro del General
San Isidro del General is a small city located in south-central Costa Rica. Historically, this region was both physically and culturally separated from the rest of Costa Rica, allowing for the emergence of unique folkloric rhythms. Popular regional music includes Campera, a combination of peasant music and creole beats; Tambito, an upbeat guitar tune; Southern Son, which features a three-four meter with accents on the first and third beats; and Tonadas, which are romantic songs inspired by local legends, incorporating guitar, violin, accordion, and mandolin harmonies.
The National Symphony Orchestra (Orquesta Sinfonica Nacional) has received international acclaim under the direction of its current conductor, Chosei Komatsu. The Costa Rican Youth Symphony Orchestra, National Symphony Choir – one of the first professional choirs in Central America – and the Costa Rican Chamber Opera are also important fonts of the nation's classical music. San Jose's National Theater hosts a variety of concerts, from classical guitar to solo pianists and grand symphony orchestras. Other venues of interest include the Teatro Mozart and the Costa Rican and North American Cultural Center.
Several jazz cafes and restaurants in and around the Escazu and San Jose area are excellent options to watch new musicians play acoustic and jazz sets. The nation's most famous jazz ensemble, Editus, has found international acclaim and won a Grammy award in 2000 for Best Latin Pop Presentation. To nurture the nation's burgeoning jazz scene, Costa Rica hosts the semi-annual International Jazz Festival, which celebrates some of the world's most talented musicians.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad among slaves who used the music as a means to communicate and tell stories. In Costa Rica, Cahuita's Walter Ferguson is a popular calypso musician whose songs include anecdotes about his childhood in poverty-stricken Panama, and are an excellent illustration of Afro-Caribbean culture.
Reggae, which first developed in Jamaica in the 1960s, is very popular in Costa Rica, especially along the Caribbean coast. Local artists include C-Sharp and Fuerza Dread, who perform at local bars like La Mochila, which hosts Costa Rica Reggae Nites every Friday. In 2011, Damian Marley honored Costa Rica as the only Central American country to make his tour list. Reggaeton blends urban beats with Jamaican dancehall and Latin rhythms to create Spanish-language songs popular among the nation's teenagers and dance club regulars. Reggaeton is also the music of choice for catchy ad campaigns and San Jose street music.
Costa Rica's dance clubs boogie to the beats of merengue, salsa, cumbia and other Latin American rhythms. Interestingly, while Costa Ricans dance salsa and merengue in the traditional styles, they exchange the popular Colombian-style cumbia dance steps for "swing criollo," or creole swing, which features a series of hops and bouncing steps to accompany cumbia's infectious beat.
Contemporary Costa Rican Musicians
Popular Costa Rican contemporary musicians include Ghandi, Cantares, Balerom, Evolucion, Akasha, El Parque, Gaviota, Percance, and Debi Nova. In August 2011, Malpais, one of Costa Rica's favorite bands, suffered the loss of Fidel Gamboa, a founding member and lead singer.